Vitamin Role in the Diet Foods Deficiency Symptoms
Required for healthy skin, eyes and hair. Important for normal growth and development. Helps the body resist infection and maintains healthy mucous membranes.

Liver, oily fish, eggs. Yellow, orange, red & dark green veg contain beta carotene which is converted into Vitamin A e.g. apricots, mangoes, carrots, spinach and watercress.

Disturbance of vision such as night blindness (difficulty seeing in dim light). Dry scaly skin, impaired growth, increased susceptibility to infection.
Needed to convert food into energy, growth in childhood and fertility in adults. Maintains a healthy heart and nervous system. Yeast extract, brown rice, pork, liver, offal, porridge & fortified breakfast cereals, pulses, nuts, seeds & wholegrain products. Deficiency is rare but may include loss of appetite, irritability, headache, poor concentration, muscle weakness and stiffness. Severe deficiency: beri-beri.
Helps the body to release energy from food. Promotes growth, also needed for healthy eyes, hair, skin and nails. Yeast extract, milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, liver, kidney, eggs, fish, poultry, fortified breakfast cereals. Bloodshot red eyes, tired eyes, dry cracked lips and corners of the mouth, eczema like rash between nose and lips.
Needed to release energy from food. Involved in controlling blood sugar, keeping skin healthy and maintaining healthy nervous and digestive systems. Yeast extract, lean meat, poultry, fish, cheese, eggs, pulses, potatoes, fortified breakfast cereals, nuts. Deficiency is rare. Fatigue, depression, dermatitis, diarrhea; Severe deficiency: Pellagra, bright red tongue and headache.
Helps to release energy from food. Essential for synthesis of antibodies and a healthy nervous system. Yeast extract, liver, kidney, brown rice, eggs, pulses, dried fruit and nuts, wholegrain cereals. Rare and very hard to diagnose but may result in numbness and tingling of toes. Usually occurs in conjunction with other B deficiencies.
Important for immune function and the production of antibodies. Maintains a healthy nervous system and is important for the production of healthy red blood cells. Yeast extract, lean meat, poultry, fish, eggs, wholemeal bread, wheat germ, wheat bran, nuts, bananas, fortified breakfast cereals. Deficiency is rare but indicated by anaemia, depression and confusion, numbness and tingling of hands and feet, poor growth and decreased antibody formation and immunity.
Needed to release energy from food. Needed for healthy skin and hair and the production of sex hormones and cholesterol. Yeast extract, liver, kidney, egg, peanuts, peanut butter, brown rice, soya beans, pulses and other nuts. Very rare but would include dermatitis, depression and thinning and hair loss.
Works with B12 to protect and develop the nervous system and production of genetic material. Protects against neural tube defects such as spina bifida in babies. Yeast extract, oat bran, green leafy vegetables, Brussels sprouts, liver, pulses, fortified breakfast cereals and fortified breads. Anaemia, apathy, swollen painful tongue, poor growth, development of neural tube defects in unborn baby.
Forms and regenerates red blood cells, needed for DNA synthesis and transportation of folic acid into cells. Meat, offal, fish, eggs and dairy products, fortified breakfast cereals, yeast extract (Marmite, Bovril). Pernicious anaemia characterised by fatigue, numbness, accompanied by degeneration of nerve tracts in the spinal cord.
Important antioxidant. Aids absorption of iron from food. Healthy immune system. Needed for collagen production and wound healing. Oranges and citrus fruits, lemons, kiwi, peppers, blackcurrants, potatoes, melons, mangoes, berries and papaya. Loss of appetite, muscle cramps, dry skin, bleeding gums, bruising, fatigue, slow healing of wounds and possible susceptibility to infection.
Needed to absorb calcium for normal healthy bones and teeth and for overall general health, especially immune health. Fish liver oils, eggs, fortified milk, oily fish such as salmon, tuna and sardines, fortified breakfast cereals. Muscle and bone weakness; Rickets (characteristic bow legs) in young and osteomalacia in those individuals whose bones have stopped growing.
Powerful antioxidant, helps healing, prevents scarring, and keeps nerves and red blood cells healthy. Protects cell membranes. Vegetable oils, wheat germ oil, nuts, seeds, margarine, eggs and green leafy vegetables. Rare. Can occur in premature babies and people on very low fat diets. Red blood cells may rupture, poor wound healing.
Essential for normal blood clotting – called the Band-Aid vitamin. Green leafy vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, milk, liver, oats, vegetable oils. Impaired blood clotting function with increased susceptibility to disease. Deficiency is rare in adults but can occur in new born babies.